Using a Brewster Angle Microscope (BAM), Langmuir films at a air-water interface can be imaged in real-time.
A Brewster Angle Microscope illuminates the water surface with p-polarized light under the Brewster angle. At ideal Brewster conditions, no light reflects off the interface. As soon as the there is a molecule film on the water surface, the Brewster conditions are lifted and the laser beam gets reflected with a certain intensity. As the measurement spot gets imaged with a microscope and a CCD camera, individual domains due to different orientations of the molecules can be followed in real-time.
The PM-IRRAS is an infrared spectrometer specifically for IR analysis of monolayers floating on an aqueous subphase or deposited on reflective substrates. It is highly sensitive and very surface specific enabling measurements in ambient conditions. The innovative goniometric configuration allows easy angle adjustment and fast setup time.
The Interfacial Shear Rheometer (ISR) provides an accurate and quantitative method to measure the shear properties of fluid interfaces (gas/liquid or liquid/liquid). The ISR can be combined with a KSV NIMA Langmuir trough, allowing measurements on both soluble and insoluble films.